2.- Types of nutrients

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Nutrients are the substances that form foods. These may include the following:

  • Carbohydrates: they provide us with energy and can be mainly obtained from products of vegetal origin such as grain, beetroots and sugar canes.
  • Proteins: nutrients that facilitate growth and human tissue repair. They can be found in animal origin foods such as milk and dairy products, meat, eggs and fish, as well as in vegetal origin foods, for example seeds.
  • Fats or lipids: they provide us with an energy which can be stored in the body unless it is consumed. They can be found in vegetal origin foods – such as oil – and in animal origin foods too – such as butter and bacon.
  • Vitamins and minerals: they make vital functions (relation, nutrition and reproduction) work correctly. They tend to be mainly in fresh fruits and vegetables.
  • Water: approximately three quarters of human body are water. We drink and expel about two litres every day.




Foods in which it predominates


Pasta, rice, bread, sugar, honey…


Meat, fish, eggs, milk, soya, walnut…

Fats or lipids

Olive oil, sunflower oil, butter, bacon…

Vitamins and minerals

Orange, apple, pineapple, lettuce, tomato…

Multimedia Resources

iDevice icon Food experiment

Did you know that starch is the most common carbohydrate? The following experiment will enable you to test which foods contain it.

Required material

1 full pitcher of water

4 small bowls (soup plates, glasses, trays... will also work)

1/2 ham slice cut into small pieces

1 loaf of bread cut into small pieces

1/4 peeled potato cut into small pieces

1/4 peeled apple cut into small pieces


1 teaspoon


Place each kind of food in a different bowl and cover with water.

Add 2 or 3 Betadine drops to each bowl and stir gently with the spoon.

Pay attention to the colour of the water! If it turns violet it is because that food contains starch.                                   

                                                Water with foodAdding BetadineStiring


Why is this happening?

Is it magic? No way. Water turns violet because iodine comes into contact with starch. A chemical reaction starts which makes water acquire a violet pigmentation.

So now you are ready to look for starchy foods. Will you be able to find any other?